Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF)

A process by which nitrogen gas (N2) from the atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) by certain bacteria. The most common and agriculturally significant form of BNF occurs in the root nodules of leguminous plants, where symbiotic bacteria, primarily from the genus Rhizobium, form a mutualistic relationship with the host plant. Through this partnership, the plant supplies carbon to the bacteria, and the bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen, which plants cannot use, into a form they can utilize for growth. This natural fertilization process is critical for soil fertility and reduces the need for chemical nitrogen fertilizers.

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